Only 1% of patients develop kidney stones after kidney transplantation.
After multivariate adjustment there was no statistically significant association between vitamin D intake and risk of stones in the follow-up study.
Mean levels of total serum testosterone and serum dihydrotestosterone were significantly higher in urolithiasis cases compared with controls.
For every 1 mm increase in stone size, the odds of passage increased by 9.8%.
Studies also link kidney stone development to osteoporosis and proton pump inhibitor use.
The presence of a ureteral stone, age less than 30 years, and the need for intravenous narcotics in the emergency department were associated with an emergency department revisit.