Girls with end-stage renal disease had 35% greater risk for death than boys.
The most common manifestation was disrespectful treatment by nursing or other support staff.
Among stage 2 to 4 bladder cancer patients, women had lower cancer-specific survival than men.
Graft failure risk was highest when a recipient of a kidney from a donor of the opposite sex was more than 66 pounds heavier than the donor.
New and established peritoneal dialysis patients both showed this trend.
A study suggests that female physicians do not use as many codes as their male counterparts, resulting in a reimbursement gap.
Women prefer female doctors, but urology has one of the largest gender gaps in medicine.