Diagnosis & Disease Information

Study: Renal Scarring More Likely in Boys

The most significant risk factors for renal scarring in children with primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) are high-grade reflux, age at VUR diagnosis greater than five years, and male gender, according to a report in Nephrology (2008;13:38-42).

When Gender Is In Doubt, What Then?

Should children with disorders of sex development (DSD) —in which genitalia, chromosomes, or reproductive systems diverge from what is considered the norm for females or males—have reconstructive surgery before they are old enough to make their own decisions?

Once Monthly C.E.R.A. Found Beneficial

BARCELONA—Once-monthly dosing of continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (C.E.R.A.) maintains stable hemoglobin levels in CKD patients regardless of age, gender, or comorbidities, according to study data presented here at the 44th Congress of the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association.

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