A study comparing 325 men with palpable varicoceles and 510 men with vasectomy reversal without varicoceles revealed that men with varicocele had significantly lower testosterone levels than the comparison group (mean 416 vs. 469 ng/dL).

According to a BJU International report by Cigdem Tanrikut, MD, and colleagues, this difference persisted when the men were analyzed by age. Microsurgical varicocelectomy improved testosterone levels in 70% of patients, yielding a mean increase of 178 ng/dL.