The incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) during long-term testosterone replacement treatment was equivalent to that expected in the general population, according to a study of 1,365 men aged 28-87 years (mean 55 years) with symptomatic androgen deficiency. All patients received testosterone treatment and had been monitored for up to 20 years, during which 14 new PCa cases were diagnosed (one case per 212 years of treatment after 2,966 man-years of treatment).

Mark R. Feneley, MD, of University College Hospital, and Malcolm Carruthers, MD, of the the Centre for Men’s Health, both in London, reported online in The Journal of Sexual Medicine that initiation of testosterone therapy had no statistically significant effect on total PSA, free PSA, or free/total PSA ratio, and any initial PSA change had no predictive relationship to subsequent cancer diagnosis. Time to diagnosis ranged from one to 12 years (mean 6.3 years), and all tumors were clinically localized and suitable for potentially curative treatment.