Long-term testosterone treatment in hypogonadal men does not increase their risk for prostate cancer (PCa), according to a study presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meeting in Chicago.
The study, by Ahmad Haider, MD, who is in private practice in Bremerhaven, Germany, and colleagues, included 942 hypogonadal men who underwent long-term testosterone treatment at 3 German centers (cohorts A, B, and C). Patients received testosterone undecanoate for up to 16 years.
Cohort A included 300 patients with a mean age of 57.7 years). PSA levels increased significantly from 1.77 to 2.0 ng/mL and mean prostate volume rose significantly from 28.3 to 30.7 mL. PCa was diagnosed in 5 patients (1.7%), for an incidence of 39.4 cases per 10,000 patient-years.
Cohort B had 261 patients with a mean age of 59.5 years. PSA levels increased significantly from 0.86 to 1.38 ng/mL and prostate volume increased significantly from 27.9 to 36.9 mL. PCa was diagnosed in 6 men (2.3%), for an incidence of 54.5 cases per 10,000 patient-years.
Cohort C had 381 patients with a mean age 42.6 years. PSA levels increased significantly from 1.6 to 1.9 ng/mL and prostate volume increased significantly from 16.9 to 19.9 mL. No case of PCa was diagnosed in this group.
The investigators pointed out that the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial and the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) found a PCa incidence of 116 and 96.6 cases per 10,000 patient-years, respectively. Dr. Haider’s group concluded that the PCa incidence found in their study does not suggest an increased risk of PCa in hypogonadal men on long-term testosterone treatment.