Metabolic syndrome and smoking are independently associated with an increased risk of moderate or severe nocturia in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), investigators reported online ahead of print in Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases.

Cosimo De Nunzio, MD, and collaborators at “La Sapienza” University of Rome in Italy, enrolled 492 patients with BPH/LUTS. The men had a median age of 68 years and median body mass index of 26.5 kg/m2. Of these men, 212 (43.1%) reported moderate or severe nocturia. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was diagnosed in 147 (29.9%) patients, and of them, 89 (60.5%) complained of moderate or severe nocturia.

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In addition, 187 patients (38%) were current smokers. Of them, 99 (52%) presented with moderate or severe nocturia. On multivariate analysis, MetS and smoking were associated with a significant 2.5-fold and 1.7-fold increased odds of moderate or severe nocturia, respectively.


De Nunzio C, rassetti A, Proietti F, et al. Metabolic syndrome and smoking are associated with an increased risk of nocturia in male patients with benign prostate enlargement. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2017; published online ahead of print. doi: 10.1038/s41391-017-0003-z