Nocturia is common, affects men and women differently, and is associated with multiple risk factors, a new Asian study confirms.

In a post hoc analysis of online questionnaire responses from 8284 participants older than 40 years from China, South Korea, and Taiwan, 75% reported 1 or more nocturnal voids and 36% reported 2 or more nocturnal voids. According to Shih‑Ping Liu, MD, of National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine and collaborators, these prevalences are consistent with studies from the United States, Europe, and China.

Multivariate analysis confirmed a variety of factors associated with 2 or more voids, including age older than 60 years, female sex, comorbid conditions, and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) assessed by International Prostate Symptom score. Nocturia of 1, 2, or 3 or more episodes occurred in slightly more women: 76%, 37%, and 17.5%, respectively, vs 74%, 35%, and 16% of men respectively. Nocturia bother increased with age.

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More individuals with than without wet or severe overactive bladder (OAB) or stress incontinence experienced significant nocturia. Those with diabetes, cardiac disease, body mass index above 23 kg/m2, and higher anxiety scores also tended to experience worse nocturia. Hypertension was a significant risk factor in women but not men, whereas alcohol consumption was a risk factor in men but not women.

Nocturia should be viewed differently in men and women, Dr Liu and colleagues stated. They pointed to differing sex-related pelvic problems contributing to nocturia, such as enlarged prostate and vaginal delivery.

In a discussion of study limitations, the authors noted that the study was conducted entirely via the internet, and data on medication usage and sleep disorders were not gathered.

Astellas Pharma Singapore funded the study.

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Chow PM, Liu SP, Chuang YC, et al. The prevalence and risk factors of nocturia in China, South Korea, and Taiwan: results from a cross‑sectional, population‑based study. World J Urol. DOI:10.1007/s00345-018-2329-0