The number of children with urolithiasis seen across 42 U.S. pediatric hospitals rose from 125 in 1999 to 1,398 in 2008, according to a recent analysis of data from the Pediatric Health Information System (J Urol. 2010;184:1100-1105).

The proportion of pediatric patients with kidney stones, compared with total hospital patients, increased from 18.4 per 100,000 cases in 1999 to 57.0 per 100,000 in 2008—an adjusted annual increase of 10.6%. The data cannot be used to estimate the rate of pediatric urolithiasis in the general population because the sample only involved children seen at a hospital.