Diabetes mellitus independently predicts an increased risk of urinary tract calculi (UTC), according to a population-based cohort study conducted in Taiwan.

The study included 12,257 cases of diabetes mellitus newly diagnosed in 2000-2002 and 96,781 controls followed to the end of 2007. Over nearly eight years of follow-up, 8.9% of diabetes and 7.2% of control subjects sought ambulatory care or were hospitalized for UTC. After adjusting for comorbidities, urinary tract infections (UTIs), sociodemographic characteristics, diabetic patients had an 18% increased risk of UTC compared with nondiabetics, researchers reported in Urology (2012;79:86-92). In addition, UTI and pyelonephritis were independently associated with an adjusted 1.68 and 2.26 times increased risk of UTC.

Additionally, compared with diabetics without UTI, male and female diabetics with UTI had a 35% and 74% increased risk UTC, respectively.

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“This cohort study provides epidemiologic support for the causal relation between diabetes and UTC, and such relation was independent of UTI,” the authors concluded. “In addition, diabetes accompanied by UTI may further increase the rate of UTC, especially in women, and these patients should be screened for UTC.”