Upward trend in kidney stone incidence would mean an increase in the number of emergency department visits, urologic consults, and the need for interventions such as lithotripsy or placement of stents, according to investigators.
Metabolic acidosis was defined as serum bicarbonate values of 12 or higher but less than 22 mEq/L.
Genetic evidence suggests a causal relationship in previously observed associations between higher coffee and caffeine consumption and kidney stone risk.
A male-to-female gap decreased significantly over time among White and non-Hispanic stone formers, but not among Black stone formers.
Thiazide diuretic therapy prescribed empirically for patients not receiving 24-hour urine testing is significantly associated with reduced odds of urinary stone recurrence compared with alkali citrate and allopurinol, a study found.
Ureteroscopy was used more often during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic compared with before the pandemic and after the peak of the pandemic, according to investigators.
Kidney stone formers with certain hereditary factors had increased risks for more severe disease.
A recent review underscores the possible adverse effects of ketogenic diets, including increased risks for heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and kidney stones.
Modifiable risk factors accounted for only a fraction of the difference in stone rates between the sexes, according to investigators.
Among patients with nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis, the cardiovascular event rate was 74.4 per 1000 person-years.