Brain metastases in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are more likely in those with larger larger tumors and younger age, according to a new study.

In an analysis of data from 38,759 RCC cases in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, investigators found that tumors 4 cm or larger but less than 10 cm were significantly associated with a more than 2-fold increased risk of brain metastases compared with tumors smaller than 4 cm in adjusted analyses.

Patients aged 70 years or older had a significant 35% lower risk of brain metastases compared with younger patients, although the impact of age on the risk of brain metastases from RCC was limited to patients with 7 cm or larger tumors, Zhi-Bin Ke, MD, and colleagues at The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University in Fuzhou, China, reported in BioMed Research International.

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Bone metastasis was significantly associated with a 3.3-fold increased risk of brain metastasis, and lung metastasis was significantly associated with a nearly 11-fold increased risk. The investigators found no significant association between liver metastasis and brain metastasis.


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Higher T stages also increased the risk for brain metastases. Compared with T1 tumors, T2, T3, and T4 tumors were significantly associated with 2.6-, 2.3-, and 2.2-fold increased risks of brain metastasis. Grade IV tumors were significantly associated with a nearly 2.5-fold increased risk of brain metastasis compared with Grade I tumors.

Reference

Ke ZB, Chen SH, Chen YH, et al. Risk factors for brain metastases in patients with renal cell carcinoma [published online March 9, 2020]. Biomed Res Int. doi: 10.1155/2020/6836234