Acetaminophen and nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and acetaminophen are associated with a significantly increased risk of developing kidney cancer, according to a new meta-analysis.

Researchers led by Eunyoung Cho, ScD, of Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School in Boston, analyzed data from 20 studies that included 8,420 cases of kidney cancer. The studies included 14 with acetaminophen, 13 with aspirin, and five with other NSAIDs. In pooled analyses, use of acetaminophen and nonaspirin NSAIDs was associated with a 28% and 25% increased risk of kidney cancer, respectively, compared with non-use, the investigators reported online ahead of print in the International Journal of Cancer. The researchers found no overall increased risk with aspirin use.

Previously, in a prospective study of 77,525 women participants in the Nurses’ Health Study and the 49,403 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, Dr. Cho and colleagues reported finding that regular use of nonaspirin NSAIDs was associated with a 51% increased relative risk of renal cell carcinoma in a pooled analysis compared with non-regular use, according to a report in Annals of Internal Medicine (2011;171:1487-1493). Aspirin and acetaminophen use were not associated with RCC risk.

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The risk of RCC increased with longer regular use of non-aspirin NSAIDs.