Men and women smokers are at increased risk of bladder cancer, and men who smoke are at increased risk of kidney cancer and decreased risk of prostate cancer (PCa), according to a retrospective study of 211,005 smokers and a matched group of non-smokers who visited 196 general practitioner’s offices in the United Kingdom.

The study showed that men and women smokers had a significant 2.3-fold and 2.7-fold increased risk of bladder cancer, respectively, compared with non-smokers, Louis Jacob, PhD, of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Paris, and colleagues reported in Oncotarget (2018;9:17420-17429). Men who smoked had a significant 26% increased risk of kidney cancer and 2.8-fold increased risk of liver cancer, but they had a significant 29% decreased risk of PCa. The study found no association between smoking and kidney or liver cancer in women. Smoking was associated with a significant 8% decreased risk of breast cancer in women.

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The study, which focused on impact of smoking on the risk of 25 cancers, found that smoking increased the risk of cancer overall. The strongest positive association between smoking and cancer was found for bronchus and lung cancer, with men and women smokers at 10-fold and 14-fold increased risk of these malignancies compared with non-smokers.

The smokers in the study were matched to non-smokers by age, gender, index year, body mass index, and physician.


Jacob L, Freyn M, Kalder M, et al. Impact of tobacco smoking on the risk of developing 25 different cancers in the UK: a retrospective study of 422,010 patients followed for up to 30 years. Oncotarget. 2018;9:17420-17429.