Having a history of urinary calculi may increase a person’s risks for developing bladder cancer, a new meta-analysis suggests.

Based on pooled data from 13 studies, stone formers had nearly 2-fold greater odds of bladder cancer compared with non-stone-formers, Guo Wenbin, MD, of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University in Guangzhou, China, and collaborators reported in Urolithiasis. The odds of bladder cancer were 2-fold higher among patients with a history of bladder stones and 1.4-fold higher among those with a history of kidney stones.

Despite heterogeneity among studies, results held in subgroup analyses by gender, geographic region, and study type. A history of urinary stones was associated with 3-fold greater odds of bladder cancer among women compared with 2-fold greater odds among men.

Continue Reading

The odds of bladder cancer among individuals with a history of urinary stones were 1.6-, 1.4-, and 3-fold higher in America, Europe, and Asia, respectively. Analyses of case-control studies and cohort studies also demonstrated increased risks (1.75 and 2.27, respectively).

All told, the findings suggest that a history of urinary calculi is associated with bladder cancer and may impact clinical management and cancer surveillance, Dr Wenbin and colleagues stated. They posited that urinary calculi cause chronic irritation and infections that promote development of neoplastic cells.

In a discussion of study limitations, the investigators noted that important confounders were not evaluated, such as family history, cigarette smoking, body mass index, and occupational exposure to chemicals. In addition, it is possible that bladder cancer was diagnosed more frequently in stone formers due to routine surveillance.

Related Articles


Yu Z, Yue W, Jiuzhi L, Youtao J, Guofei Z, and Wenbin G. The risk of bladder cancer in patients with urinary calculi: a metaanalysis.  Urolith. doi: 10.1007/s00240-017-1033-7