Antimicrobial prophylaxis for children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) after a febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) decreases the risk of recurrent UTI, but not renal scarring, according to a report published online ahead of print in The New England Journal of Medicine.

Alejandro Hoberman, MD, of the Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, and colleagues conducted a 2-year randomized study of 607 children with VUR diagnosed after a first or second febrile or symptomatic UTI.

Recurrent UTI occurred in 39 of 302 children who received prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) compared with 72 of 305 children who received placebo, which translated into a 50% decreased risk of recurrence in the TMP-SMX group.

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