In an analysis of 1,936 participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study, greater severity of retinopathy was strongly associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after adjusting for traditional and nontraditional risk factors, suggesting that retinovascular pathology reflects renal disease.

The presence of vascular abnormalities usually associated with hypertension was also associated with lower eGFR, according to a report in Archives of Ophthalmology (2012;130:1136-1144).