Although urinary tract infections (UTIs) in childhood are considered a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), a literature search revealed that in the absence of structural kidney abnormalities evident in imaging studies after the first UTI, the etiologic fraction of recurrent childhood UTIs as a main cause of CKD appears small, investigators reported in Pediatrics (2011;128:840-847).

In 1,576 reviewed cases, childhood UTIs were not the main cause of subsequent CKD for any patient.