High levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors 1 and 2 are associated with an increased risk of kidney disease in patients with type 1 diabetes, according to findings published online ahead of print in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

In a study by Andrzej S. Krolewski, MD, and colleagues, TNF receptor 2 levels in the highest quartile were three times more likely to experience renal decline than patients in other quartiles. The risk associated with TNF receptor 1 was slight less than that associated with TNF receptor 2 values.