SAN FRANCISCO—A pre-transplant history of malignancy is associated with 22% increased risk in 10-year mortality among adult kidney allograft recipients, according to a new study presented at the 2014 World Transplant Congress.

However, the researchers found that having a malignancy prior to renal transplantation was not associated with increased risk of death-censored graft loss.

Alfonso Santos, MD, of the University of Florida, Gainesville, and his colleagues examined patient and graft survival rates in 1,128 adult kidney transplant recipients with history of malignancy before transplant.

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The patient and graft survival rates were compared to the rates occurring in 5,635 kidney recipients with no history of malignancy. Recipients with prior malignancies were more likely to have delayed graft function (18.7% vs. 14.1% in the no-malignancy group). The rejection rates were similar (16.1% vs. 15.7% for the no-malignancy group).

The patients with prior malignancies had worse 5- and 10-year survival rates post-transplant than the no-malignancy group (75% vs. 81% and 53% vs. 60%, respectively).