Even moderate hyponatremia declines are associated with an increased risk of death, according to a recent meta-analysis published in PLoS One (2013;8[12]:e80451).

The meta-analysis of 81 studies, which was performed by Giovanni Corona, MD, of Maggiore-Bellaria Hospital in Bologna, Italy, showed that hyponatremia was associated with a significant 2.6 times increased risk of death. The mean difference in serum sodium level between those who died and those who did not was 4.8 mmol/L.

Additional analyses revealed that hyponatremia-related risk of all-cause mortality was inversely correlated with serum sodium level.

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