After examining vitamin D receptor (VDR) Cdx2 genotype and calcium intake in 533 African-American men with prostate cancer (PCa) and 250 control subjects, Gary G. Schwartz, PhD, and colleagues found that men in the highest quartile of calcium intake had a 2.2 times increased risk of localized and advanced PCa compared with men in the lowest quartile.

Poor absorbers of calcium—men with the VDR Cdx2 CG genotype—were 59% less likely to have been diagnosed with advanced PCa. Among men with calcium intake below the median (680 mg/day), genetically poor absorbers had an approximately 50% decreased risk of having advanced PCa compared with the best absorbers, investigators reported in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research.