Increased intake of citrus fruit is associated with a decreased risk of bladder cancer, according to a new meta-analysis published online ahead of print in the International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition.
The meta-analysis, by Sudong Liang, MD, of Soochow University in Yangzhou Jiangsu, China, and colleagues, included 8 case-control studies and 6 cohort studies totaling 7,372 cases and 935,800 subjects. Pooled data from the 14 studies showed that individuals with the highest intake of citrus fruit had a 15% decreased risk of bladder cancer risk compared with those who had the lowest intake. Analysis of data from the case-control studies showed a significant 23% decreased risk. Investigators found no association between fruit intake and bladder cancer risk in the cohort studies.
“Our results suggest that there is limited evidence for a protective association between high citrus fruit intake and bladder cancer risk,” the researchers wrote.
Dr. Liang’s group explained that an inverse association between citrus fruit consumption and bladder cancer risk is biologically plausible. “Citrus fruits are good courses of multiple cancer-chemopreventive agents such as vitamin C, carotenoids, flavonoids, limonoids, folic acid, and dietary fiber.”