SAN FRANCISCO—Ultrasound surveillance for renal tumors should be performed on native and graft kidneys from 3 years after kidney transplantation, Australian researchers reported at the 2014 World Transplant Congress.

A study led by Alexandra Hockings, MBBS, and presented by Cristian Udovicich, MD, looked at factors that predispose renal transplant recipients to an increased risk for renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

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The researchers, from St. Vincent’s Hospital in Melbourne, examined data from the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry and identified 11,922 patients who received their transplant between 1992 and 2011.

The incidence of RCC after renal transplantation was 1.25%. The researchers found that 72% of RCCs occurred only in the native kidney, 25% only in the graft kidney, and 3% in both native and graft kidneys. Patients diagnosed with RCC had significantly increased mortality (40% vs. 21% in the non-RCC group).

Male gender, Caucasian ethnicity, and history of prior RCC were all significantly associated with an increased risk of RCC diagnosis following renal transplantation. Recipients with the identified risk factors should be targeted for more vigorous surveillance.