(HealthDay News) — Childhood kidney recipients have increased cancer risk, according to a study published online in the American Journal of Transplantation.

Anna Francis, from the University of Sydney, and colleagues examined the overall and site-specific incidences of cancer after kidney transplantation in 1734 childhood recipients using data from the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry. The incidences were compared with population-based data using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs).

The researchers found that over a median follow-up of 13.4 years, 16.7% developed cancer (196 nonmelanoma skin cancers, 143 non-skin cancers). The 25-year cumulative incidences of any cancer, non-melanoma skin cancer, and non-skin cancer were 27%, 20%, and 14%, respectively. For non-skin cancer, the SIR was 8.23, with the highest risk for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease and cervical cancer (SIRs, 45.80 and 29.4, respectively). Risk factors for cancer included increasing age at transplantation, white race, and having a functioning transplant (adjusted hazard ratios, 1.10 [per year], 3.36, and 2.27, respectively).

“Cancer risk, particularly for viral-related cancers, is increased substantially after kidney transplantation during childhood,” the authors write.

Related Articles


  1. Francis A, Johnson DW, Craig JC, Wong G. Incidence and predictors of cancer following kidney transplantation in childhood. Am J Transplant. 29 March 2017. doi: 10.1111/ajt.14289