(HealthDay News) — Very low-energy diets and formula meal replacements are associated with weight loss for individuals with type 2 diabetes, according to a review published online in Diabetologia.

Chaitong Churuangsuk, MD, from the University of Glasgow in the United Kingdom, and colleagues conducted a systematic review of published meta-analyses to assess dietary approaches to weight loss and remission in type 2 diabetes to inform practice and clinical guidelines. Nineteen meta-analyses of weight-loss diets were identified, involving two to 23 primary trials, with 100 to 1587 participants.

The researchers found that weight loss was greatest with very low-energy diets versus low-energy diets (6.6 kg greater weight loss for 1.7 to 2.1 versus 4.2 to 6.3 MJ/day for eight to 12 weeks). Over 12 to 52 weeks, formula meal replacements achieved 2.4 kg greater weight loss. Compared with higher-carbohydrate/low-fat diets, low-carbohydrate diets were no better for weight loss. Minimal or no difference from control diets was seen for high-protein, Mediterranean, high-monounsaturated-fatty-acid, vegetarian, and low glycemic-index diets. Sixteen records met inclusion criteria for diabetes remission. At one year, remissions were reported for a median of 54% of participants in randomized controlled trials including initial low-energy total diet replacement; remission was 11 and 15% for meal replacements and Mediterranean diets, respectively.

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“The evidence, albeit of variable ‘quality,’ is rather consistent such that no one diet type is superior over others for weight management in type 2 diabetes,” the authors write.

Several authors disclosed financial ties to the pharmaceutical and weight-loss industries.

Abstract/Full Text