Higher consumption of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) through dietary fat is associated with higher risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD), according to a new study.

Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed, MSc, of the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran, and colleagues studied 1692 participants in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study who were free of CKD at baseline. The individuals had a mean age of 43.4 years and mean dietary intake of energy-adjusted AGEs was 8336 kU/day. The mean dietary AGE intake from fat and meat was 3518 and 3609 kU/day, or 42.2% and 43.3% of total AGE intake, respectively. After 3 years of follow-up, 172 individuals (10.2%) were diagnosed with CKD.

Participants in the highest quartile of AGEs intake from fat was associated with 2-fold increased odds of CKD compared with those in the lowest quartile, the investigators reported online in the Journal of Renal Nutrition. Total AGE intake and AGE intake from meats was not associated with CKD risk.

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The researchers concluded that “restricting dietary AGEs by decreasing fat intake is a practical strategy for decreasing CKD incidence.”

AGEs are proteins or lipids that become glycated and oxidized after exposure to sugars. They contribute to oxidative stress and inflammation and promote atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and renal dysfunction. Diets rich in fats and meats are likely to contribute more AGEs, especially when cooked under drug heat, according to investigators. The researchers cited studies showing that AGEs can increase the thickness of glomerular basic membrane, glomerular sclerosis, and tubular interstitial fibrosis. AGE accumulation is associated with renal insufficiency and correlated positively with serum creatinine and negatively with glomerular filtration rate, they noted.

Ejtahed and colleagues said that to the best of their knowledge, their study is the first to investigate the association between dietary consumption of AGEs according to source of AGE intake and CKD risk.

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