Individuals who take proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are at elevated risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD), researchers reported online in BMC Nephrology.

Pradeep Arora, MD, of the University at Buffalo and the VA Medical Center in Buffalo, New York, and colleagues studied 76,462 patients without pre-existing CKD at baseline. The investigators identified PPI use in 22,734 patients: 4,711 CKD patients and 18,023 controls. PPI use versus non-use was associated with 10% increased odds of CKD and 76% increased odds of death.

The most likely explanation for the increased risk of CKD is unrecognized or partially recovered acute interstitial nephritis, the researchers stated.

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