A high resting heart rate and low beat-to-beat heart rate variability raises the odds of developing kidney disease, according to a study that examined data from 13,241 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Daniel J. Brotman, MD, of Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, and colleagues found that over a median follow-up of 16 years, subjects aged 45-64 years with higher resting heart rates had a twofold increased risk of eventually developing kidney failure; those with a lower beat-to-beat variability in heart rate had a 1.5-fold increased risk, according to findings published online in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.