SAN DIEGO—Anemia, CKD, and microalbuminuria are each independently associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, regardless of the presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

David G. Warnock, MD, of the University of Alabama in Birmingham, and colleagues studied 18,722 participants in the REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) Study, a population-based U.S. sample of individuals aged 45 years and older. In this sample, 4,764 individuals had CVD and 14,361 did not. CVD included previous myocardial infarction, stroke, or a history of cardiovascular procedures.

Among subjects with CVD and CKD, an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was associated with a 2.8 times increased risk of death from any cause compared with subjects without CKD or CVD. Anemia (a hemoglobin concentration below 13.5 g/dL in men and below 12 g/dL in women) was associated with a 2.7 times increased risk. Microalbuminuria (a urinary albumin/creatinine ratio of 30 mg/g or higher) was associated with a 2.6 times increased risk.

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Among subjects with CKD but not CVD, an eGFR below 60, anemia, and microalbuminuria, increased the risk of all-cause mortality by 46%, 70%, and 80%, respectively.

Dr. Warnock presented findings at the American Society of Nephrology’s Renal Week conference.