Women who have a history of kidney stones are at increased for chronic kidney disease (CKD), according to a new study.

An analysis of data gathered from 5,971 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2010) showed that individuals with a history of kidney stones were 1.5 times more likely have CKD and 2.4 times more likely to receive dialysis treatment than those without a history of kidney stones, researchers led by Brian H. Eisner, MD, co-director of the Kidney Stone Program at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, reported online ahead of print in The Journal of Urology.

This increased risk was driven mostly by women, in which a history of kidney stones was associated with a nearly 1.8 times increased risk of CKD and a greater than 3-fold increased risk of receiving dialysis treatment. The researchers found no significant association between kidney stone history and CKD or dialysis treatment in men.

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Dr. Eisner and his colleagues defined CKD as an estimated glomerular filtration rate below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, a urinary albumin to creatinine ratio greater than 30 mg/g, or both.

Among the women with no history of kidney stones, 13.5% had CKD and 1.5% required dialysis treatment. Among the women with a history of stones, 23.2% had CKD and 5.6% required dialysis treatment. The differences in the proportions between women with and without a history of kidney stones were statistically significant.

The proportion of men with CKD was 11.4% among those with no history of kidney stones and 15.2% among those with such a history; the proportion of those needing dialysis was 1.6% and 3.1%, respectively. The differences in the proportions were not statistically significantly.

“Our finding of no significant association between nephrolithiasis and CKD in men but an increased risk in women may reflect the different pathophysiology of these disease processes in each gender,” the authors wrote.

One plausible explanation may be that the interactions of each risk factor for CKD (hypertension, diabetes, and obesity) and stone disease may be different among men and women, according to the investigators.