(HealthDay News) — Overconsuming low-quality carbohydrates and animal protein at dinner versus breakfast is associated with a significantly increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), according to a study published online in the The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.
Wanying Hou, from the Harbin Medical University in China, and colleagues examined the association of subtypes of macronutrient consumption at dinner versus breakfast with CVD in 27,911 participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003 to 2016). The differences in macronutrient subtypes at dinner versus breakfast (Δratio) were classified into quintiles.
The researchers found that participants in the highest versus the lowest quintile of the Δratio of low-quality carbohydrates had a higher risk for angina and heart attack after adjustment for covariates (odds ratios, 1.63 and 1.47, respectively). Increased risks for coronary heart disease and angina were seen for the highest quintile of the Δratio of animal protein (odds ratios, 1.44 for both). Lower stroke risk was seen in association with the highest quintile of the Δratio of unsaturated fatty acid. The risk for CVD was reduced by about 10% with isocaloric substitution of low-quality carbohydrates/animal protein by high-quality carbohydrates/plant protein at dinner.
“Meal timing along with food quality are important factors to consider when looking for ways to lower your risk of heart disease. Our study found people who eat a plant-based dinner with more whole carbs and unsaturated fats reduced their risk of heart disease by 10%,” one coauthor said in a statement.