Erectile dysfuction (ED), defined as the inability to reach or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance, is age-related and an extremely prevalent medical condition. It is estimated to affect more than half of all men over the age of 60, and in the United States alone, ED will develop in more than 600,000 men aged 40-69 annually.1
Most patients who have high BP have primary or essential hypertension, the cause of which is as yet unknown. About 5%-10% of adults with hypertension have an identifiable or “secondary” cause of their elevated BP.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complex disorder for which there is no uniform definition. AKI has been reported in up to 7% of hospitalized patients, but epidemiologic studies are sparse and confounded by differences in case definitions and heterogeneity in patient populations.
The active forms of vitamin D—calcitriol, paricalcitol, and doxercalciferol—which also are known as vitamin D receptor activators (VDRAs), have been largely used in nephrology only as a treatment for secondary hyperparathyroidism, an elevation in parathyroid hormone (PTH) due to renal failure.
For 30 years, lasers have been evolving for the treatment of urologic conditions. Investigators focused on lasers for BPH to achieve results similar to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) without the bleeding, fluid overload, blood loss, inpatient hospital stays of two to three days, and erectile dysfunction associated with TURP.