Investigators have developed a new questionnaire to assess the symptoms and burden of the anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its effects on health-related quality of life. It was presented at the National Kidney Foundation’s 2023 Spring Clinical Meetings in Austin, Texas.

The 21-item CKD-AQ questionnaire assesses the frequency, duration, and severity of anemia symptoms. Investigators identified and tested 3 domains Tired/Low Energy/Weak; Chest Pain/Shortness of Breath; and Cognitive. The questionnaire also included 4 single-item scores that assessed difficulty sleeping, standing, and performing usual activities. The questionnaire accurately distinguished known risk groups. Improvements in CKD-AQ scores were validated against scores from the Short Form-36, EuroQoL 5-dimension, and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment tool.

The CKD-AQ was developed using qualitative interviews from 36 patients with anemia of CKD, who most frequently reported fatigue (79%), shortness of breath (39%), and weakness/lack of strength (36%). It was tested among 399 patients with nondialysis CKD and 450 patients on dialysis, who provided similar responses.

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“CKD-AQ captures the frequency and severity of the most relevant symptoms and impacts associated with anemia of CKD,” Kirsten Johansen, MD, of Hennepin Healthcare in San Francisco, California, and colleagues stated in their poster. “It is a valid and psychometrically sound [patient-reported outcome] tool suitable for use in patients with anemia of CKD.”

The copyrighted CKD-AQ tool is available at

Disclosure: This research was supported by GlaxoSmithKline. Please see the original reference for a full list of disclosures.


Keeley T, Chen WH, Refoios Camejo R, et al. Chronic kidney disease and anemia questionnaire (CKD-AQ), a new patient-reported outcomes (PRO) measure developed for use in patients with anemia of CKD. Presented at: NKF 2023, Austin, Texas, April 11-15. Poster 186.