For the first time, researchers have estimated the prevalence and incidence of the disorder.
It also was associated with high hemoglobin levels and reduced levels of C-reactive protein.
Protein levels found to modify the effect of serum phosphorus with mortality in hemodialysis patients.
In 3 trials, the annual cost for preventing 1 patient from being transfused varied from $61,188 to $317,988.
A level of 7 mg/dL or higher is associated with a 62% increased risk compared with lower levels.