LAS VEGAS—Obesity, current smoking, and diet are modifiable risk factors for developing chronic kidney disease (CKD), according to a study.

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Researchers who analyzed data from participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study found that obese individuals (those with a body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or greater) had a threefold increased risk for developing CKD, after adjusting for multiple variables. Current smokers were at 44% increased risk.

Individuals who did not follow the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet were at increased risk. The DASH diet emphasizes consumption of fruit, low-fat dairy foods, nuts, and whole grains and recommends decreased consumption of sodium, sugar-sweetened beverages, and red or processed meats. Researchers established a diet score of 0-7, with increasing scores denoting increased departure from the DASH diet. Each one-unit increase in diet score was associated with a 40% increased risk of CKD, the researchers reported at the National Kidney Foundation’s Spring Clinical Meetings.

The study, by Alexander Chang, MD, of the Loyola University Medical Center in Maywood, Ill., and colleagues, identified factors not related to lifestyle that influenced CKD risk, include age, race, and gender. Each one-year increment in age was associated with an 8% increased risk of CKD. Blacks were 3.3 times more likely than whites to develop CKD and males were 3.4 times more likely to develop CKD than females.

The CARDIA study was a longitudinal study of cardiovascular risk factors in individuals 18-30 years old at year 0 in 1985-1986.