SAN FRANCISCO—Radical prostatectomy (RP) is associated with improved overall survival compared with radiation therapy in men with clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa), data suggest.

Adam S. Kibel, MD, of Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Mo., and colleagues studied 10,472 men treated for localized prostate cancer from 1995 to 2007.

Of these, 6,493 underwent radical prostatectomy, 2,260 had external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), and 1,719 had brachytherapy (BT). The 10-year overall survival after RP, EBRT, and BT was 87%, 63%, and 60%, respectively, the investigators reported here today at the Genitourinary Cancers Symposium. Using propensity score analysis, EBRT and BT were associated with a 60% and 70% increased risk of death, respectively, compared with RP, after adjusting for potential confounders.

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Additionally, EBRT was associated with a 60% increased risk of death from prostate cancer compared with RP, but BT was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer mortality.

The symposium is sponsored by the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the American Society for Radiation Oncology, and the Society of Urologic Oncology.