Preeclampsia increases the risk of post-pregnancy chronic kidney disease (CKD), according to study findings presented at the 55th European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association congress in Copenhagen, Denmark. The risk is especially high in the first 5 years after pregnancy.
The findings, reported by Jonas H. Kristensen, MD, of Statens Seruminstitut in Copenhagen and colleagues, is from a study of 1,072,330 women in Denmark with pregnancies lasting 20 weeks or more. During a mean follow-up of 18.6 years per woman, CKD developed in 3901 women. Compared with women who did not have a history of preeclampsia who had delivered in the same gestational age, women with a history of early preterm (less than 34 weeks), late preterm (34–36 weeks), and term (37 weeks or more) preeclampsia had a significant 3.9-, 2.8- and 2.3-fold increased risk of post-pregnancy CKD, respectively.
The associations between preeclampsia and post-pregnancy glomerular diseases was particularly striking, the investigators noted. For example, early preterm preeclampsia was associated with a significant 5-fold increased risk of glomerular diseases years after delivery.
Associations with unspecific chronic kidney impairment and hypertensive kidney disease also were strong, according to the researchers. For example, preterm preeclampsia was associated with a significant 2.9- and 4.2-fold increased risk of these problems, respectively.
The associations between any preeclampsia and unspecific chronic kidney impairment and glomerular diseases were much more pronounced within 5 years of pregnancy. The risk of unspecific chronic kidney impairment and glomerular diseases among women with any preeclampsia was increased by 5.5- and 4.4 fold within 5 years of pregnancy and by 2.1- and 1.5-fold 5 or more years after pregnancy.
Kristensen JH, Basit S, Wohlfahrt J, et al. Preeclampsia and the risk of renal disease. Presented at the 55th ERA-EDTA congress in Copenhagen, Denmark, May 24–27. Abstract FO061.