Heavy smoking is associated with an increased risk of nocturia in men, new data presented at the European Association of Urology 2020 virtual congress suggest.

Investigators Noriyuki Iida, MD, and colleagues from Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center, Komagome Hospital in Tokyo, Japan, examined the association between smoking and nocturia in a retrospective study of 613 men complaining of lower urinary tract symptoms who had complete records on smoking status and other variables. They defined nocturia as voiding 2 or more times at night. They used pack-year (PY) index to assess smoking exposure.

The men had a median age of 71 years and a median smoking exposure of 20 PY. Nocturia was present in 421 men (69%). Median PY was significantly higher in men with nocturia than without it (23 vs 15).

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The investigators reported that 41 PY was the best cutoff for discriminating the effect of smoking exposure on nocturia risk. A total of 191 men (31%) had a high PY (41 or higher). On multivariable analysis, high PY was significantly associated with nearly 1.6-fold increased odds of nocturia compared with PY below 41. In addition, men aged 72 years or older had significant 3.5-fold increased odds of nocturia compared with younger men.

Furthermore, of 533 men for whom details of smoking status were available, nocturia was present in 67%, 72%, and 64% of never, former, and current smokers, respectively, according to the investigators. They observed no significant difference in nocturia risk according to current smoking status.

“Heavy smoking history was associated with male nocturia,” Dr Iida and colleagues concluded. “However, smoking cessation is unlikely to improve male nocturia.”


Iida N, Ito M, Nakanishi Y, et al. Association between male nocturia and smoking exposure: Does smoking cessation improve nocturia? Presented at: EAU20 Virtual Congress; July 17 to 19, 2020. Abstract 978.