Kidney stone disease is characterized by racial and sex disparities, according to data presented during the AUA2021 Virtual Experience.

Joseph Crivelli, MD, of the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine and colleagues identified patients with a kidney stone diagnosis from 2010 to 2019 using 5 large datasets: 30,966 patients from the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB); 45,604 patients from the University of Texas Southwestern (UTSW); 21,796 from Parkland Memorial Hospital (PMH); 42,652 from Henry Ford Health System; and 16,618 from UC Davis Health System. For temporal trends, the investigators analyzed claims data from 68,594 patients in Optum Clinformatics Data Mart.

Most Black stone formers were female, whereas most White and non-Hispanic stone formers were male, the investigators reported in a poster presentation. In 2 of the 4 cohorts, the majority of Hispanic stone formers were female. The male-to-female ratio differed significantly between Black and White stone formers, and to a lesser degree between Hispanic and non-Hispanic stone formers. The study did not assess male-to-female ratio among Asian, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native stone formers.

Continue Reading

The male-to-female gap appeared to decrease from 2010 to 2019, the investigators found.

“Further evaluation of these findings and their association with comorbidities and socioeconomic factors is needed to understand disparities in stone disease,” the authors concluded in a slide presentation. Health disparities by race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geography are evident in many aspects of kidney stone disease, they noted.

“With rising incidence and prevalence of kidney stone disease, it is increasingly important to recognize obstacles to optimal health outcomes among stone formers, and how to overcome them,” Dr Crivelli said in an interview. “While it is critical to raise awareness of existing health disparities, interventions to reduce or even eliminate them are the ultimate goal.”


Crivelli J, Maalouf N, Yan P, et al. Trends in the influence of gender, race, and ethnicity on the prevalence of kidney stones: a multi-institutional and claims analysis. Presented at: AUA2021 Virtual Experience held September 10-13, 2021. Abstract MP54-09.

Crivelli JJ, Maalouf NM, Paiste HJ, Wood KD, Hughes AE, Oates GR, Assimos DG. Disparities in kidney stone disease: a scoping review. J Urol. 2021 Sep;206(3):517-525. doi:10.1097/JU.0000000000001846