ATLANTA—A history of kidney disease, hypertension, high body mass index (BMI), and smoking are independently associated with an increased risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), researchers reported at the American Urological Association 2012 annual meeting.

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In a population-based cohort study of Washington State residents aged 50-76 years conducted from 2000 to 2002, investigators at the University of Washington in Seattle identified 249 incident cases of RCC.

Subjects with a history of kidney disease had a 2.9 times increased risk of RCC compared with those who never had kidney disease, said Liam C. Macleod, MD, MPH, who presented study findings. Hypertensive individuals were at 70% increased risk compared with those who did not have hypertension. Compared with subjects who had a BMI below 25 kg/m2, those with a BMI of 35 or higher also had a 70% increased risk. Smokers with more than 37 pack-years of smoking had a 60% increased risk compared with nonsmokers.

Identification of modifiable risk factors offers an opportunity for targeted education and intervention in those with multiple high risk features, the investigators concluded.

The principal investigator of the study was Emily White, PhD.