Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A. Cancer Statistics, 2013.CA Cancer J Clin 2013;63:11-30.
Andriole GL, Crawford ED, Grubb RL 3rd, et al. Mortality results from a randomized prostate-cancer screening trial.N Engl J Med 2009;360:1310-1319.
Welch HG, Black WC. Overdiagnosis in cancer.J Natl Cancer Inst 2010;102:605-613.
Qaseem A, Barry MJ, Denberg TD, et al. Screening for prostate cancer: A guidance statement from the Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med 2013;158:761-769.
Oesterling JE, Jacobsen SJ, Chute CG, et al., Serum prostate-specific antigen in a community-based population of healthy men. Establishment of age-specific reference ranges. JAMA 1993;270:860-864.
Kawakami J, Siemens DR, Nickel JC. Prostatitis and prostate cancer: implications for prostate cancer screening. Urology 2004;64:1075-1080.
Carvalhal GF, Smith DS, Mager DE, et al., Digital rectal examination for detecting prostate cancer at prostate specific antigen levels of 4 ng./ml. or less. J Urol 1999;161:835-839.
Fowler JE Jr, Bigler SA, Farabaugh PB, Wilson SS. Prostate cancer detection in Black and White men with abnormal digital rectal examination and prostate specific antigen less then 4 ng./ml. J Urol 2000;164:1961-1963.
Draisma G, Etzioni R, Tsodikov A, et al. Lead time and overdiagnosis in prostate-specific antigen screening: importance of methods and context. J Natl Cancer Inst 2009;101:374-383.
Feliciano J, Teper E, Ferrandino M, et al. Re: The incidence of fluoroquinolone resistant infections after prostate biopsy–are fluoroquinolones still effective prophylaxis? J Urol 2008;179:952-955.
Boddy JL, Pike DJ, Malone PR. A seven-year follow-up of men following a benign prostate biopsy. Eur Urol 2003;44:17-20.
Truong M Yang B, Jarrard DF. Toward the detection of prostate cancer in urine: a critical analysis. J Urol 2013;189:422-429.
Killick E, Bancroft E, Kote-Jarai Z, Eeles R. Beyond prostate-specific antigen – future biomarkers for the early detection and management of prostate cancer. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2012;24:545-555.
Nakanishi H, Groskopf J, Fritsche HA, et al. PCA3 molecular urine assay correlates with prostate cancer tumor volume: implication in selecting candidates for active surveillance. J Urol 2008;179:1804-1809.
van Gils MP, Hessels D, van Hooij O, et al. The time-resolved fluorescence-based PCA3 test on urinary sediments after digital rectal examination; a Dutch multicenter validation of the diagnostic performance. Clin Cancer Res 2007; 13:939-943.
Vlaeminck-Guillem V, Ruffion A, Andre J, et al. Urinary prostate cancer 3 test: toward the age of reason? Urology 2010;75:447-453.
Gu Z, Thomas G, Yamashiro J, et al. Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) expression increases with high gleason score, advanced stage and bone metastasis in prostate cancer. Oncogene 2000;19:1288-1296.
Murphy GP, Barren RJ, Erickson SJ, et al. Evaluation and comparison of two new prostate carcinoma markers. Free-prostate specific antigen and prostate specific membrane antigen.Cancer 1996;78:809-818.
Kuefer R, Varambally S, Zhou M, et al. alpha-Methylacyl-CoA racemase: expression levels of this novel cancer biomarker depend on tumor differentiation. Am J Pathol 2002;161:841-848.
Lin B, Ferguson C, White JT, et al. Prostate-localized and androgen-regulated expression of the membrane-bound serine protease TMPRSS2. Cancer Res 1999;59:4180-4184.
Xu LL, Srikantan V, Sesterhenn IA, et al., Expression profile of an androgen regulated prostate specific homeobox gene NKX3.1 in primary prostate cancer.J Urol 2000;163:972-979.
Oettgen P, Finger E, Sun Z, et al. PDEF, a novel prostate epithelium-specific ets transcription factor, interacts with the androgen receptor and activates prostate-specific antigen gene expression. J Biol Chem 2000;275:1216-1225.
Nelson PS, Gan L, Ferguson C, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of prostase, an androgen-regulated serine protease with prostate-restricted expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999;96:3114-3119.
Bussemakers MJ, van Bokhoven A, Verhaegh GW, et al. DD3: a new prostate-specific gene, highly overexpressed in prostate cancer. Cancer Res 1999;59:5975-5979.
Tinzl M, Marberger M, Horvath S, et al. DD3PCA3 RNA analysis in urine–a new perspective for detecting prostate cancer. Eur Urol 2004;46:182-186.
Groskopf J, Aubin SM, Deras IL, et al. APTIMA PCA3 molecular urine test: development of a method to aid in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Clin Chem 2006;52:1089-1095.
Marks LS, Fradet Y, Deras IL, et al. PCA3 molecular urine assay for prostate cancer in men undergoing repeat biopsy. Urology 2007;69:532-535.
Aubin SM, Reid J, Sarno MJ, et al. PCA3 molecular urine test for predicting repeat prostate biopsy outcome in populations at risk: validation in the placebo arm of the dutasteride REDUCE trial. J Urol 2010;184:1947-1952.
Haese A, de la Taille A, van Poppel H, et al. Clinical utility of the PCA3 urine assay in European men scheduled for repeat biopsy. Eur Urol 2008;54:1081-1088.
Ploussard G, Haese A, van Poppel H, et al. The prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) urine test in men with previous negative biopsies: does free-to-total prostate-specific antigen ratio influence the performance of the PCA3 score in predicting positive biopsies? BJU Int 2010;106:1143-1147.
Bradley LA, Palomaki GE, Gutman S, et al. Comparative effectiveness review: prostate cancer antigen 3 testing for the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer.J Urol 2013;190:389-398.
Hessels D, Klein Gunnewiek JM, van Oort I, et al. DD3(PCA3)-based molecular urine analysis for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Eur Urol 2003;44:8-15.
Popa I, Fradet Y, Beaudry G, et al. Identification of PCA3 (DD3) in prostatic carcinoma by in situ hybridization. Mod Pathol 2007;20:1121-1127.
de Kok JB, Verhaegh GW, Roelofs RW, et al. DD3(PCA3), a very sensitive and specific marker to detect prostate tumors. Cancer Res 2002;62:2695-2698.
Ruiz-Aragon J, Marquez-Pelaez S. [Assessment of the PCA3 test for prostate cancer diagnosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis].Actas Urol Esp 2010; 34:346-355.
Deras IL, Aubin SM, Blasé A, et al. PCA3: a molecular urine assay for predicting prostate biopsy outcome. J Urol 2008;179:1587-1592.
Crawford ED, Rove KO, Trabulsi EJ, et al. Diagnostic performance of PCA3 to detect prostate cancer in men with increased prostate specific antigen: a prospective study of 1,962 cases. J Urol 2012;188:1726-1731.
Gittelman MC, Hertzman B, Bailen J, et al. PCA3 molecular urine test as a predictor of repeat prostate biopsy outcome in men with previous negative biopsies: a prospective multicenter clinical study. J Urol 2013;190:64-69.
Tomblad B, Andriole GL, de la Taille A, et al. Clinical judgment versus biomarker prostate cancer gene 3: which is best when determining the need for repeat prostate biopsy? Urology 2013;81:998-1004.
Roobol MJ, Schroder FH, van Leenders GL, et al. Performance of prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) and prostate-specific antigen in prescreened men: reproducibility and detection characteristics for prostate cancer patients with high PCA3 scores (≥100). Eur Urol 2010;58:893-899.
Carter HB, Albersten PC, Barry MJ, et al. Early detection of prostate cancer: AUA Guideline. J Urol 2013;190:419-426.
Ankerst DP, Groskopf J, Day JR, et al. Predicting prostate cancer risk through incorporation of prostate cancer gene 3. J Urol 2008;180:1303-1308.
Chun FK, de la Taille A, van Poppel H, et al. Prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3): development and internal validation of a novel biopsy nomogram. Eur Urol 2009;56:659-667.
Hessels D, Smit FP, Verhaegh GW, et al. Detection of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcripts and prostate cancer antigen 3 in urinary sediments may improve diagnosis of prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2007;13:5103-5108.
Salami SS, Schmidt F, Laxman B, et al. Combining urinary detection of TMPRSS2:ERG and PCA3 with serum PSA to predict diagnosis of prostate cancer.Urol Oncol 2013;31:566-571.
Jones L, Day J, Meyer S, et al. Urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG help predict biopsy outcome prior to initial prostate biopsy using a risk group analysis. . American Urologic Association 2013 annual meeting, San Diego. Abstract 2129.
Lin DW, Newcomb LF, Brown EC, et al. Urinary TMPRSS2:ERG and PCA3 in an active surveillance cohort: results from a baseline analysis in the Canary Prostate Active Surveillance Study. Clin Cancer Res 2013;19:2442-2450.