1. National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Bone Metabolism and Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;42 (suppl 3):S1-S202.
  2. Moe S, Drueke T, Cunningham J, et al. Definition, evaluation, and classification of renal osteodystrophy: a position statement from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Kidney Int. 2006;69:1945-1953.
  3. Souberbielle JC, Friedlander G, Cormier C. Practical considerations in PTH testing. Clin Chim Acta. 2006;366:81-89.
  4. Gao P, D’Amour P. Evolution of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) assay–importance of circulating PTH immunoheterogeneity and of its regulation. Clin Lab. 2005;51:21-29.
  5. Holmes DT, Levin A, Forer B, Rosenberg F. Preanalytical influences on DPC IMMULITE 2000 intact PTH assays of plasma and serum from dialysis patients. Clin Chem. 2005;51:915-917.
  6. Joly D, Drueke TB, Alberti C, et al. Variation in serum and plasma PTH levels in second-generation assays in hemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2008;51:987-995.
  7. Dukkipati R, Kovesdy CP, Colman S, et al. Association of relatively low serum parathyroid hormone with malnutrition-inflammation complex and survival in maintenance hemodialysis patients. J Ren Nutr. 2010;20:243-254.
  8. Nakai S, Akiba T, Kazama J, et al. Effects of serum calcium, phosphorous, and intact parathyroid hormone levels on survival in chronic hemodialysis patients in Japan. Ther Apher Dial. 2008;12:49-54.
  9. Kovesdy CP, Ahmadzadeh S, Anderson JE, Kalantar-Zadeh K. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is associated with higher mortality in men with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2008;73:1296-1302.
  10. Naves-Diaz M, Passlick-Deetjen J, Guinsburg A, et al. Calcium, phosphorus, PTH and death rates in a large sample of dialysis patients from Latin America. The CORES Study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010; Epub ahead of print.
  11. Kalantar-Zadeh K, Kuwae N, Regidor DL, et al. Survival predictability of time-varying indicators of bone disease in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2006;70:771-780.
  12. Bianchi ML, Colantonio G, Campanini F, et al. Calcitriol and calcium carbonate therapy in early chronic renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1994;9:1595-1599.
  13. Coen G, Mazzaferro S, Bonucci E, et al. Treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism of predialysis chronic renal failure with low doses of 1,25(OH)2D3: humoral and histomorphometric results. Miner Electrolyte Metab. 1986;12:375-382.
  14. Nordal KP, Dahl E. Low dose calcitriol versus placebo in patients with predialysis chronic renal failure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1988;67:929-936.
  15. Schoppet M, Shanahan CM. Role for alkaline phosphatase as an inducer of vascular calcification in renal failure? Kidney Int. 2008;73:989-991.
  16. Fletcher S, Jones RG, Rayner HC, et al. Assessment of renal osteodystrophy in dialysis patients: use of bone alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and parathyroid ultrasound in comparison with bone histology. Nephron. 1997;75:412-419.
  17. Lehmann G, Ott U, Kaemmerer D, et al. Bone histomorphometry and biochemical markers of bone turnover in patients with chronic kidney disease Stages 3-5. Clin Nephrol. 2008;70:296-305.
  18. Urena P, Hruby M, Ferreira A, et al. Plasma total versus bone alkaline phosphatase as markers of bone turnover in hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1996;7:506-512.
  19. Abramowitz M, Muntner P, Coco M, et al. Serum alkaline phosphatase and phosphate and risk of mortality and hospitalization. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5:1064-1071.
  20. Regidor DL, Kovesdy CP, Mehrotra R, et al. Serum alkaline phosphatase predicts mortality among maintenance hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19:2193-2203.
  21. Tonelli M, Curhan G, Pfeffer M, et al. Relation between alkaline phosphatase, serum phosphate, and all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. Circulation. 2009;120:1784-1792.
  22. Liu S, Quarles LD. How fibroblast growth factor 23 works. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;18:1637-1647
  23. Gutierrez O, Isakova T, Rhee E, et al. Fibroblast growth factor-23 mitigates hyperphosphatemia but accentuates calcitriol deficiency in chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16:2205-2215.
  24. Shigematsu T, Kazama JJ, Yamashita T, et al. Possible involvement of circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 in the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism associated with renal insufficiency. Am J Kidney Dis. 2004;44:250-256.
  25. Gutierrez OM. Fibroblast growth factor 23 and disordered vitamin D metabolism in chronic kidney disease: updating the “trade-off” hypothesis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5:1710-1716.
  26. Juppner H, Wolf M, Salusky IB. FGF-23: more than a regulator of renal phosphate handling? J Bone Miner Res. 2010; Epub ahead of press.
  27. Gutierrez OM, Mannstadt M, Isakova T, et al. Fibroblast growth factor 23 and mortality among patients undergoing hemodialysis. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:584-592.
  28. Jean G, Terrat JC, Vanel T, et al. High levels of serum fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 are associated with increased mortality in long haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008;24:2792-2796.
  29. Seiler S, Reichart B, Roth D, et al. FGF-23 and future cardiovascular events in patients with chronic kidney disease before initiation of dialysis treatment. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010; Epub ahead of print.
  30. Parker BD, Schurgers LJ, Brandenburg VM, et al. The associations of fibroblast growth factor 23 and uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein with mortality in coronary artery disease: the Heart and Soul Study. Ann Intern Med. 2010;152:640-648.
  31. Gutierrez OM, Januzzi JL, Isakova T, et al. Fibroblast growth factor 23 and left ventricular hypertrophy in chronic kidney disease. Circulation. 2009;119:2545-2552.
  32. Kanbay M, Nicoleta M, Selcoki Y, et al. Fibroblast growth factor 23 and fetuin A are independent predictors for the coronary artery disease extent in mild chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5:1780-1786.
  33. Mirza MA, Hansen T, Johansson L, et al. Relationship between circulating FGF-23 and total body atherosclerosis in the community. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009;24:3125-3131.
  34. Mirza MA, Larsson A, Lind L, Larsson TE. Circulating fibroblast growth factor-23 is associated with vascular dysfunction in the community. Atherosclerosis. 2009;205:385-390.
  35. Mirza MA, Larsson A, Melhus H, et al. Serum intact FGF-23 associate with left ventricular mass, hypertrophy and geometry in an elderly population. Atherosclerosis. 2009;207:546-551
  36. Yilmaz MI, Sonmez A, Saglam M, et al. FGF-23 and vascular dysfunction in patients with stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2010;78:679-685.
  37. Koiwa F, Kazama JJ, Tokumoto A, et al. Sevelamer hydrochloride and calcium bicarbonate reduce serum fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in dialysis patients. Ther Apher Dial. 2005;9:336-339.
  38. Oliveira RB, Cancela AL, Graciolli FG, et al. Early control of PTH and FGF-23 in normophosphatemic CKD patients: a new target in CKD-MBD therapy? Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5:286-291.
  39. Isakova T, Gutierrez OM, Wolf M. A blueprint for randomized trials targeting phosphorus metabolism in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int.2009;76:705-716.
  40. Uribarri J. Phosphorus homeostasis in normal health and in chronic kidney disease patients with special emphasis on dietary phosphorus intake. Semin Dial. 2007;20:295-301.
  41. Larsson T, Nisbeth U, Ljunggren O, et al. Circulating concentration of FGF-23 increases as renal function declines in patients with chronic kidney disease, but does not change in response to variation in phosphate intake in healthy volunteers. Kidney Int. 2003;64:2272-2279.

HOW TO TAKE THE POST-TEST: To obtain CME credit, please click here after reading the article to take the post-test on