1. Girman CJ. Natural history and epidemiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia: relationship among urologic measures. Urology 1998;51(4A Suppl):8-12.

  2. Roehrborn CG. Etiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology and natural history of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 

  3. Brown CT, Yap T, Cromwell DA, et al. Self management for men with lower urinary tract symptoms: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2007;334(7583):25.

  4. Avins AL, Lee JY, Meyers CM, Barry MJ. Safety and toxicity of saw palmetto in the Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Urological Symptoms (CAMUS) Trial. J Urol. 2012 (published online ahead of print Oct. 9)

  5. Guideline on the Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Clinical Guidelines [serial on the Internet]. 2003.

  6. de La Rosette J, Alivizatos G, Madersbacher M, et al. Guidelines on Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Guidelines [serial on the Internet]. 2004.

  7. Elhilali M, Ramsey E, Barkin J, et al. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of terazosin in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urology 1996;47:335-342.

  8. Roehrborn C. Efficacy and safety of once-daily alfuzosin in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms and clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Urology 2001;58:953-959.

  9. Roehrborn C, Siegel R. Safety and efficacy of doxazosin in benign prostatic hyperplasia: a pooled analysis of three double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. Urology 1996;48:406-415.

  10. Debruyne F. Alpha blockers: are all created equal? Urology 2000; 56(5 suppl 1):20-22.

  11. McConnell J. Medical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia with androgen suppression. Prostate 1990;3(Suppl):49-59.

  12. Kaplan S, McConnell J. Combination therapy with doxazosin and finasteride for benign prostatic hyperplasia in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms and a baseline total prostate volume of 25 mL or greater. J Urol 2006;175:217-220.

  13. Marberger M, Chartier-Kastler E, Egerdie B, et al. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled phase 2 dose-ranging study of onabotulinumtoxinA in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Eur Urol 2013;63:496-503.

  14. McConnell JD, Roehrborn CG, Bautista OM, et al. The long-term effect of doxazosin, finasteride, and combination therapy on the clinical progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia. N Engl J Med 2003;349:2387-2398.

  15. Becher E, Roehrborn CG, Siami P, et al. The effects of dutasteride, tamsulosin, and the combination on storage and voiding in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic enlargement: 2-year results from the Combination of Avodart and Tamsulosin study. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2009;12:369-374.

  16. Barkin J, Roehrborn CG, Siami P, et al. Effect of dutasteride, tamsulosin and the combination on patient-reported quality of life and treatment satisfaction in men with moderate-to-severe benign prostatic hyperplasia: 2-year data from the CombAT trial. BJU Int. 2009;103:919-926.

  17. Roehrborn CG, Siami P, Barkin J, et al. The effects of combination therapy with dutasteride and tamsulosin on clinical outcomes in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia: 4-year results from the CombAT study. Eur Urol. 2010;57:123-131.

  18. Kaplan S, Gonzalez R, Te A. Combination of alfuzosin and sildenafil is superior to monotherapy in treating lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction. Eur Urol 2007;51:1717-1723.

  19. Marberger M, Chartier-Kastler E, Egerdie B, et al. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled phase 2 dose-ranging study of onabotulinumtoxinA in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Eur Urol 2013;63:496-503.

  20. Hoffman RM, Monga M, Elliott SP, et al. Microwave thermotherapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;9).

  21. Woo HH, Chin PT, McNicholas TA, et al. Safety and feasibility of the prostatic urethral lift: a novel, minimally invasive treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). BJU Int 2011;108:82-88.

  22. Chin PT, Bolton DM, Jack G, et al. Prostatic urethral lift: two-year results after treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urology 2012;79:5-11.

  23. Bachmann A, Muir GH, Collins EJ et al. 180-W XPS GreenLight laser therapy for benign prostate hyperplasia: Early safety, efficacy, and perioperative outcome After 201 procedures. Eur Urol 2011;61:600-607.

  24. Geavlete B, Georgescu D, Multescu R, Stanescu F, Jecu M, Geavlete P. Bipolar plasma vaporization vs monopolar and bipolar TURP-A prospective, randomized, long-term comparison. Urology 2011;78:930-935.

  25. Seckiner I, Yesilli C, Akduman B, Altan K, Mungan NA. A prospective randomized study for comparing bipolar plasmakinetic resection of the prostate with standard TURP. Urol Int 2006;76:139-143.

  26. Hon NH, Brathwaite D, Hussain Z, et al. A prospective, randomized trial comparing conventional transurethral prostate resection with PlasmaKinetic® vaporization of the prostate: physiological changes, early complications and long-term followup. J Urol 2006;176:205-209.

  27. Patankar S, Jamkar A, Dobhada S, Gorde V. PlasmaKinetic Superpulse transurethral resection versus conventional transurethral resection of prostate. J Endourol 2006;20:215-219.

  28. Nuho˘glu B, Balci MBC, Aydin M, Hazar I, Onuk Ö, Tas’¸ T, et al. The role of bipolar transurethral vaporization in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urol Int 2011;87:400-404.

  29. Xie C-Y, Zhu G-B, Wang X-H, Liu X-B. Five-Year follow-up results of a randomized controlled trial comparing bipolar plasmakinetic and monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate. Yonsei Med J 2012;53:734-741.

  30. Rassweiler J, Teber D, Kuntz R, Hofmann R. Complications of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)—incidence, management, and prevention. Eur Urol 2006;50:969-979.

  31. Gratzke C, Schlenker B, Seitz M, Karl A, Hermanek P, Lack N, et al. Complications and early postoperative outcome after open prostatectomy in patients with benign prostatic enlargement: results of a prospective multicenter study. J Urol 2007;177:1419-1422.