Archives: DDI

Hypernatremia

History & Epidemiology Hypernatremia is a condition caused by an abnormally high level of sodium in the blood, with a serum sodium concentration of greater than 145 mEq/L.1 Hypernatremia has several potential causes including dehydration, excessive sweating, and use of certain medications.1 Infants, older adults, and those receiving inpatient hospital care are at greatest risk…

Renal Cell Carcinoma

History Renal cell carcinomas, the most common form of kidney cancer or renal cancer, develop in the lining of the tubules.1 Approximately 90% of all kidney cancers are renal cell carcinoma.2 Alternative names for this malignancy include renal cell cancer, renal adenocarcinoma, and hypernephroma.3 There are three main histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma, itself…

Beta Blockers

β-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonists (beta blockers or β-blockers) are a class of cardiovascular drugs that inhibit adrenergic receptors.1 Adrenergic receptors are G-protein coupled transmembrane proteins that are activated by catecholamines, specifically noradrenaline and adrenaline. ARs are divided into 3 families, β1, β2, and β3 ARs. Due to the differential affinities, ligand activation of β-ARs can…

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