Diagnosis & Disease Information



Hypernatremia is a condition caused by an abnormally high level of sodium in the blood, with a serum sodium concentration of greater than 145 mEq/L. Hypernatremia has several potential causes including dehydration, excessive sweating, and the use of certain medications. Infants, older adults, and those receiving inpatient hospital care are at greatest risk for hypernatremia.

Renal Cell Carcinoma

Renal cell carcinomas, the most common form of kidney cancer or renal cancer, develop in the lining of the tubules. Approximately 90% of all kidney cancers are renal cell carcinoma. Alternative names for this malignancy include renal cell cancer, renal adenocarcinoma, and hypernephroma. The precise cause or causes of renal cell cancer, a type of kidney cancer, have not been identified, but there are several known risk factors. Renal cell carcinomas account for approximately 3% of all cancer cases worldwide.

Beta Blockers

Beta-blockers are used for a variety of indications, including hypertension, ventricular arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation or flutter, angina due to coronary atherosclerosis, acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and left ventricular dysfunction following myocardial infarction. Non-selective beta0blockers (propranolol, nadolol, labetalol, pindolol, sotalol, carvedilol) should not be used in patients with asthma. Cardioselective beta-blockers (atenolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, esmolol, acebutolol, metoprolol, and nebivolol) are appropriate to use in patients with asthma.

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