William E. Winter

All articles by William E. Winter

Renal Disease Associated With Diabetes (Diabetes Nephropathy)

At a Glance Diabetic nephropathy is diagnosed when a patient with established diabetes mellitus has persistent proteinuria. If the glomerular filtration rate is reduced, serum creatinine can be elevated and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or creatinine clearance (CrCl) can be reduced. Patients with type 1 diabetes should be screened for microalbuminuria beginning 5…

Nephrotic Syndrome

At a Glance Nephrotic syndrome is included in the differential diagnosis of patients with peripheral edema. Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by: pitting-edema hypoalbuminia proteinuria (in adults: ≥3.5 g/24 hours) hyperlipidemia (increased cholesterol and/or triglycerides) What Tests Should I Request to Confirm My Clinical Dx? In addition, what follow-up tests might be useful? The clinician should…

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