Nadeem Shafi, Author at Renal and Urology News

Nadeem Shafi

All articles by Nadeem Shafi

Disorders of Phosphorus: Hyperphosphatemia and Hypophosphatemia

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has a disorder of phosphorus? What are the typical findings for this disease? Phosphorus exists in the body in multivalent forms bound to oxygen called phosphates (Phos), or as phosphorus bound to other macromolecules. A major intracellular anion and constituent of nucleic acids…

Disorders of Sodium: Hyponatremia and Hypernatremia

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has a disorder of sodium? What are the typical findings for this disease? Sodium is the major cation of the extracellular space. It is a primary determinant of serum osmolarity, though not the only one. The normal range of serum sodium in children…

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