Martin Kroll, Author at Renal and Urology News

Martin Kroll

All articles by Martin Kroll

Renal Cell Carcinoma

At a Glance Renal cell carcinoma, also known as the hypernephroma, clear cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, or the Grawitz tumor, is a tumor of the kidney and accounts for 85% of primary renal malignancies in adults. Most commonly, it is found in patients older than 40 years of age with a 2:1 male predominance. It is…

Wilms Tumor

At a Glance Wilms tumor of the kidney, also known as a nephroblastoma, typically occurs in children 2-5 years of age, with 95% of tumors occurring before 10 years of age. It is the primary renal tumor of childhood, affecting 1 out of 10,000 children in the United States. Between 5 and 10% of cases…

Pyelonephritis caused by Escherichia Coli

At a Glance Acute pyelonephritis results from bacterial invasion of the renal parenchyma. Escherichia coli accounts for 70-90% of uncomplicated urinary tract infections and 20-50% of complicated infections. Patients demonstrate a wide range of presentations with pyelonephritis, ranging from a mild illness to sepsis. Patients usual present with fever, flank or back pain, shaking chills,…

Pyelonephritis caused by Klebsiella Spp.

At a Glance Acute pyelonephritis results from bacterial invasion of the renal parenchyma. Klebsiella spp. make up 1-2 % of uncomplicated cases and 2-17% of complicated cases. Complicated cases are those in which there is at least one factor that diminishes antimicrobial therapy. Escherichia coli accounts for 70-90% of uncomplicated urinary tract infections and 20-50%…

Transitional Cell Carcinoma

At a Glance More than 70,000 cases of bladder cancer are diagnosed annually in the United States. Transitional cell carcinoma arises from the epithelial layer found in the renal pelvis, ureter, or bladder. They are noted for being either solitary or multifocal in nature. Workers exposed to aniline dyes have a higher incidence. People working…

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