Page 427 – Renal and Urology News

Antepartum and Postpartum Hemorrhage – Prediction and Management

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Obstetric hemorrhage accounts for 25% to 30% of all maternal deaths worldwide and causes death in underdeveloped countries at a rate 100 times that in developed countries. Most deaths are due to postpartum hemorrhage. In developed countries, postpartum hemorrhage is the leading cause of major maternal…

Ophthalmic Surgery – General Considerations

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure As a group, patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery have a low risk of developing perioperative cardiac complications, but frequently have associated medical conditions associated with the extremes of age. Nitrous oxide (N2O) can increase intraocular pressure and cause blindness in patients who recently had a medical gas…

Thyroidectomy – Procedures

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Disorders of the thyroid gland usually involve some swelling or increase in thyroidal tissue. Surgery is typically superficial and in some cases can be performed under regional or local anesthesia by experienced surgeons. The thyroid gland can become massive and sternotomy may be required to extirpate…

Mediastinal masses

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Mediastinal masses can be anterior, middle, or posterior in their location. In general, anterior mediastinal masses (lymphomas, thymomas, germ cell tumors, metastatic lesions, and thyroid masses) are problematic due to compression of both airway and vascular structures. Middle (bronchogenic cysts, granulomas, and lymphomas) and posterior mediastinal…

Amputation of the Leg, Above the Knee and Below the Knee

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Patients present for amputations of the lower extremity for a variety of reasons, including, but not limited to, infection, vascular compromise, tumors, and trauma. The underlying reason for the amputation should be elucidated, if it is not obvious. The primary reason that the amputation is required…

Pulmonary Thromboendarterectomy

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) is the surgical therapy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), which is defined as pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary artery pressure >25 mmHg) that persists for at least 6 months after an episode of pulmonary embolism. At experienced centers, PTE has a perioperative mortality…

Mitral Valve Replacement

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Background Mitral valvular disease can be categorized as either stenotic or incompetent, albeit a third or more of patients present with both lesions. Mitral stenosis (MS) represents a pressure overload condition; whereas, mitral insufficiency or mitral regurgitation (MR) represents a volume overload state. As such, the…

The Parturient with Multiple Gestation

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Multiple gestations have become more common because they can occur in conjunction with infertility treatments. In comparison to singleton gestations, multiple gestations are more likely to be complicated by supine hypotension syndrome, anemia, preeclampsia, polyhydramnios, preterm premature rupture of membranes, preterm labor and/or delivery, dysfunctional labor,…

Thyroglossal Duct Cyst

Preliminary Diagnosis: Thyroglossal duct cyst I. What imaging technique is first-line for this diagnosis CT soft tissue neck with IV contrast. II. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of this technique for diagnosis of thyroglossal duct cyst. Advantages Relatively inexpensive, fast imaging modality. Highly specific and sensitive for detecting and diagnosing a thyroglossal duct cyst. Can…

ORIF of vertebral fracture

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Vertebral fractures can be pathologic (metastatic cancer), degenerative (osteoporosis), or traumatic (motor vehicle accident, fall, sports, gunshot). The most common sources for spinal metastatic disease are lung, breast, gastrointestinal, and prostate cancers. In osteoporotic patients, vertebral fractures occur twice as often as fractures of other bones…

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