Page 429 – Renal and Urology News

Leukocytosis

Leukocytosis I. Problem/Condition. Leukocytosis refers to an elevation in the total white blood cell count (WBC). Although each laboratory should establish its own normal range, the upper limit of normal for the WBC tends to be approximately 10-11 x1000 cells/uL, two standard deviations above the mean. The elevation can be due to one specific cell…

Smoking cessation/e-cigarettes

What every physician needs to know: Over the past 50 years, smoking prevalence in the US has decreased from over 40% in the mid 1960s to around 15% in 2015. Much of this is attributable to increased public awareness regarding the effects of smoking; younger generations are much less likely to have smoked than their…

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

What every physician needs to know: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung syndrome characterized by an accumulation of surfactant within the alveoli, leading to pulmonary symptoms, increased infection risk, and in severe cases, hypoxic respiratory failure. The most common type is autoimmune PAP, which is associated with autoantibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)…

Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

1) General description of procedure, equipment, technique General description: In clinical medicine there are a variety of physiologic measurements that evaluate cardio-respiratory function. Many of these measurements are performed with patients at resting state or while patients carry out simple maneuvers. Prominent examples include spirometry, measurement of lung volumes, pulmonary diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide,…

Lung Cancer Medical Therapy

What every physician needs to know: Lung cancer remains a leading cause of mortality in the United States. Despite advances in screening and early detection, the majority of patients still present with advanced disease. Despite the recent therapeutic discoveries in targeted treatment, and immunotherapy, cures are rare and the major objective of therapy is palliation.…

Fertility preservation

Fertility Preservation Oocyte cryopreservation, Egg freezing, Sperm cryopreservation, Sperm freezing, Ovarian tissue freezing, Ovarian failure, Ovarian insufficiency, Testicular failure 1. What every clinician should know Fertility preservation is the process by which either oocytes (eggs) or sperm undergo an intervention to preserve their use for future attempts at conception. Fertility preservation is considered for patients…

HCW Influenza vaccination programs

HCP Influenza vaccination programs How do the contributions of HCP Influenza Vaccinations impact infection control currently, and how does the vaccination program interact with other aspects of infection control? Influenza causes considerable yearly morbidity and mortality in the United States. Annually, approximately 36,000 deaths and over 200,000 hospitalizations are attributable to influenza infection. There is…

Peeling Skin Syndrome

Peeling Skin Syndrome Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) refers to a rare group of heterogeneous autosomal recessive diseases that manifest as superficial skin peeling without mucosal peeling. Three types of PSS have been characterized based on the areas of skin affected, presence of systemic manifestations, and distinct genetic mutations. First,…

Vohwinkel Syndrome

Vohwinkel Syndrome Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? Vohwinkel syndrome, also referred to as keratoderma hereditaria mutilans, is a rare autosomal dominant skin disorder resulting in a mutilating keratoderma of the hands and feet. Two types have been characterized that differ in clinical presentation and distinct gene mutations. What you should be alert for in…

Levamisole vasculopathy/vasculitis

Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? Levamisole-induced vasculitis develops in patients exposed to cocaine that has been adulterated or “cut” with levamisole. Characteristic physical exam findings, history, and laboratory data may help clinicians differentiate this entity from other vasculitides and therefore help with long-term management of this potentially recurrent problem. Patients who develop levamisole-induced vasculitis…

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